Sleep is a basic need that is needed by everyone. To be able to function optimally, then everyone requires sufficient rest and sleep, no exception also 2 in people who are suffering pain, they also need adequate rest and sleep.

The definition of sleep

Sleep is a State that over and over again, changes the status of the circumstances that occurred during a specific period (Potter & Perry, 2005). Sleep refers to a change in the status of individual consciousness where the individual level of consciousness decreases, physical activity is minimal and generally slowing the body’s physiological processes.

Sleep is a natural physiological process, processes that occur in living organisms and is a process of recovery of the interbank activity. Therefore, an important part of sleep on life cycle and any disruption that occurred during sleep will obviously have an impact on the health of Sleep are also said to be a process which is very important for human beings, because the process occurs in sleep the recovery process is beneficial, restoring the condition of a person in its original state, so, the body that had been experiencing fatigue will be refreshed (Andreas, 2009).

The physiology of sleep

The physiology of sleep is sleep activity arrangements involving the cerebral mechanism which in turn in order to enable the Centre of the brain to sleep and wake up. One of the activities by the system activation reticular who was the system that regulates the levels of activity of the central nervous arrangement including sleep (Bascom, 2009). According to Gunawan (2001), divided into two sleep patterns, namely:

a. regular sleep patterns (Non-REM)

Sleep pattern regular Non – REM (Non-Rapid Eye Movement).In this situation, most of the organs of the body will become less active, regular breathing, muscles start to relax, the eyes and the face of silence without motion. Non – REM phase lasts approximately 1 hour, and in this phase are typically people are still biased to listen to the sounds around them, so it will be easily awakened from his sleep.

b. paradoxical sleep patterns

Also known as REM sleep (Rapid Eye Movement). In this phase, the movement – rapid eye movements, heart rate and breathing that up is down, while the muscles – muscles undergo saggy (total relaxation). The process of total relaxation is very useful in the recovery effort and removal of all sense of tired. The phases of sleep REM (deep sleep phase) lasting for approximately 20 minutes. In this phase, often arising out of dreams – dreams, delirious, or even snoring. In the night’s last for approximately 6-8 hours, both the sleep patterns (REM and Non-REM) occur alternately as much as 4-6 cycles. (Gunawan, 2001).

Also Read: Factors Affecting Sleep

When a normally dormant passing 4 to 6 beds full of cycles, each cycle consisting of 4 stages of Non-Rapid Eye Movement sleep (NREM) and one period of Rapid Eye Movement sleep (REM). Pattern cycles are typically evolved from phase 1 towards stage 4 Non-Rapid Eye Movement (NREM), follow the opposite stage 4 3rd, then 2nd, terminated with a period of Rapid Eye Movement sleep (REM) (Potter & Perry, 2005).

In the article the disease hard to sleep/insomnia and sleep function/benefit break soul for health stages of sleep are 1.) Earlier, 2.) Non-Rapid eyes movement (non-rem), 3.) Rapid eyes movement (rem), 4.) Dream sleep, (Organization, community, Indonesia online library & 2008). While according to Potter & Perry (2005), the stages of sleep are:

Sleep wake cycle
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To get maximum sleep quality, we need to understand what is called the sleep cycle. The sleep wake cycle consists of several stages where if we understand, we will be able to wake up in the morning easier and fresher. Therefore, quoted from various sources, the following is a full explanation of the quality of sleep and sleep cycles!.

What is a sleep cycle?

When we sleep, we pass the 5 different stages:

  • Stage 1
  • Stage 2
  • Stage 3
  • Stage 4
  • REM (rapid eye movement)

However, the stages of sleep that we enjoy is actually spinning all night depending on the duration of sleep. Each stage is associated with different brain waves. When we made it through all the stages, we reach a full sleep cycle that usually happens in 90 minutes. During 90 minutes of this process does not include a person to actually fall asleep, that average about 10-20 minutes.

1. start entering the bed that still easily awakened

Stage 1 is a phase where we’re still light sleep, not really asleep. In this phase, we can easily be awakened or woken up easily.

2. from lost consciousness and more easily distracted

Stage 2 often lasted for about 20 minutes. Our brains began producing fast rhythmic brain waves. Our body temperature and heart rate began to fall we began to wane.

3. the transition to deeper sleep

This phase is a phase transition from light sleep to deep sleep. The usual slow brain waves known as delta waves appear at this phase. When we slept long and pass through a full sleep cycle 3, this third phase is usually bypassed.

4. deep sleep

Stage 4 is a deep sleep phase that lasts for about 30 minutes. Our bodies will usually enter stage 4 twice for 8 hours of sleep. It’s important not to wake up during this deep sleep stage because it can cause disorientation, a misty mind and will make us have a very unproductive day.

5. REM Sleep: the majority of dreams occur

This is the phase where most dreams occur. Beta waves are generated because when we focus on mental activity. It is important to note here that our sleep does not always go through each stage of the sleep cycle in sequence.

Sleep and Productivity

Our sleep usually starts with Stage 1 and then moves to Stage 2, 3 and 4. After we sleep well on Stage 4, Stage 3 and 2 are repeated before finally entering the REM Sleep phase. After the REM phase is complete, we usually return to Stage 2.

Every night, the optimal amount of sleep we should get is 8 hours a night. But if we can’t get 8 hours, at least try not to wake up while on Stage 4 because it will cause bad mood throughout the day.

Also Read: Sleep disorders in the elderly

After understanding the stage of sleep above, we only need to calculate a good time to sleep so that we can wake up in the right phase and certainly not on Stage 4. If we want to wake up at 6 am, it means we will want 5 full sleep cycles of 90 minutes if the total is 7.5 hours. That way, we will know that we have to sleep at half past 11 a night. We can also use several applications available on smartphones to monitor our sleep cycle.

After we fully understand how the sleep cycle works and how we actually sleep every night, then we can make sure to get the best night’s sleep possible, in order to increase creativity and productivity the next day. Good night’s sleep tonight.